Israel, named for the patriarch Jacob, is the nation God chose to receive His revelation and with whom God chose to make His covenant with. The people of Israel were called Hebrews, Israelites, and Jews in the Bible.
The Covenant Edit
At the time God made His covenant with Israel the were not yet a nation. As a matter of fact they were nothing more than a single man named Abram. God made an unconditional covenant with Abram that required nothing in return. He promised Abram that He would make his descendants as numerous as the stars and that those descendants were be given the land "from the river of Egypt to the great river, the river Euphrates, the land of the Kenites, the Kenizzites, the Kadmonites, the Hittites, the Perizzites, the Rephaim, the Amorites, the Canaanites, the Girgashites and the Jebusites.” After the covenant was given God changed Abram's name to Abraham.